Fetus and Newborn https://www.fetusandnewborn.com/journal/index.php/fnb <p>“Fetus and Newborn” is an initiative from the National Neonatology Forum – Kerala chapter, as part of its ongoing academic activities. This, peer reviewed journal will be published quarterly. The journal aims to update the practicising clinical neonatologists, academicians, pediatricians as well the fetal medicine specialists with the latest research developments and management in the field of neonatal –perinatal medicine, so as to improve the neonatal outcome. </p> National Neonatology Forum – Kerala Chapter en-US Fetus and Newborn Neonatal Sepsis – Are We Faring Better? https://www.fetusandnewborn.com/journal/index.php/fnb/article/view/15 <p>Thanks to all my seniors and editorial board, the first issue was well received by the neonatologists and paediatricians. In this second issue, we are extremely happy to include a research article from the nursing team, who form the backbone of neonatal care. The editorial team encourages and invites more contribution from the nursing fraternity which will of use to nursing and physician community too.</p> C Jayasree Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 1 2 28 28 10.52314/fnb.2021.v1i2.15 Neonatal Congenital Nasal glial Heterotopia excised by Direct Nasal Endoscopic approach https://www.fetusandnewborn.com/journal/index.php/fnb/article/view/20 <p>Nasal glial heterotopia is a non-hereditary, benign, congenital malformation, embryologically related to encephalocele. Nasal gliomas or Nasal glial heterotopia arise due to defective closure of the anterior neuropore during embryological development and represent encephalocele that have lost their intra cranial extension. Neuroimaging studies rule out intracranial involvement, in view of potential intracranial involvement early surgical correction is crucial. A case is presented of neonatal airway obstruction due to neuroglial heterotopia in the right nasal cavity which was removed endoscopically</p> M M Ramadas Nihala Noorudheen Kalathil Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 1 2 50 51 10.52314/fnb.2021.v1i2.20 Laryngeal Web and Subglottic Stenosis in a Neonate with Di-George Syndrome https://www.fetusandnewborn.com/journal/index.php/fnb/article/view/21 <p>DiGeorge syndrome also known as Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), Shprintzen syndrome, Cayler Cardiofacial syndrome or Conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAF) is an autosomal dominant condition occurring due to 22q11.2 deletion. It is the most common microdeletion syndrome with an estimated prevalence of about 1:4000 births.1 The common defects associated with this deletion was acronymed as CATCH 22 syndrome (Cardiac abnormality, Abnormal facies, Thymic hypoplasia, Cleft palate and Hypocalcemia) by Wilson et al in 1993. About 95% of children with this deletion have loss of function of TBX1 gene, which results in abnormal development of thymus, parathyroid and a portion of great vessels from the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches leading to thymic and parathyroid hypoplasia, congenital heart defects and other features of this syndrome. DiGeorge syndrome is diagnosed by FISH analysis using LSI (Locus Specific Identifier) probe from DiGeorge critical region which indicates deletion of the HIRA/Tuple1 locus at 22q11.2. Even though articles on DiGeorge syndrome have been widely published, the association of structural airway abnormalities like laryngeal web and subglottic stenosis with DiGeorge syndrome has not been reported previously from India to our knowledge. This article is to report a 9-day old female baby, resident of South Kerala, who was brought with clinical findings consistent with DiGeorge syndrome and a critical airway.</p> Silpa Rani Sekhar Kamala Swarnam Mili Thomas Jayakumar R Menon Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 1 2 52 54 10.52314/fnb.2021.v1i2.21 Rational Selection of Genetic Tests in Clinical Practice Part II - Molecular Diagnosis https://www.fetusandnewborn.com/journal/index.php/fnb/article/view/18 <p>Advances in the fields of molecular medicine and genetic engineering have found applications in clinical practice in the form of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of genetic disorders. Genetic disorders can be broadly classified into three categories: Chromosomal disorders, Single gene disorders and multifactorial disorders. During evaluation of a suspected genetic disorder, apart from hematological, biochemical and radiological investigations we have to use some specialized investigations. In this second part of this review article we are describing various molecular genetic methods used for the diagnosis.</p> V H Sankar Santhi Saraojam Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 1 2 38 42 10.52314/fnb.2021.v1i2.18 Role of Biomarkers in Neonatal Sepsis. Are we in search of the Holy Grail? https://www.fetusandnewborn.com/journal/index.php/fnb/article/view/19 <p>Neonatal sepsis continues to be a common and significant health care burden, especially in very-low-birth-weight infants (&lt;1500 g) with high mortality. The symptoms and signs are quite nonspecific resulting in under or over treatment with unnecessary antibiotics. The traditional markers like septic screen and hematological scores (total WBC count, Absolute Neutrophil count, IT ratio, peripheral smear), are a far cry from ideal. The gold standard blood culture including the Bactec is not full proof and time consuming. Acute phase reactant like C-Reactive Protein has good specificity, but poor sensitivity. Procalcitonin is expensive. The new biomarkers like Serum Amyloid A, Cytokines and chemokines like IL-6,IL-8, Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha, Cell surface markers like nCD64, the ‘Omics’ like Genomics, Metabolomics and Proteomics and the new biophysical markers like heart rate variability and core temperature differences, and the role of artificial intelligence (AI)in early diagnosis of sepsis are being discussed. The ultimate search for an ideal biomarker with 100% sensitivity and specificity is still going on, so that ultimately neonatal sepsis can be diagnosed before symptoms manifest resulting in early treatment and good prognosis.</p> PMC Nair Anila V Panackal Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 1 2 43 49 10.52314/fnb.2021.v1i2.19 Effectiveness of Pre Feed Oral Stimulation Programme on Feeding Behaviour and Growth Velocity of Preterm Infants https://www.fetusandnewborn.com/journal/index.php/fnb/article/view/16 <p>Background: Difficulty in feeding is an important problem that preterm infants need to overcome. Facilitating oral feeding skills and helping preterm infants transit to full oral feeding is an important focus of preterm care in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). <br>Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of pre feed oral stimulation programme on feeding behaviour and growth velocity of preterm infants admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.<br>Methods: A quantitative research approach with quasi experimental pre-test post-test control group design was used for the study. The framework, Betty Neuman’s System model theoretically supported the study. The study was conducted among sixty preterm infants admitted in the NICU and infants were selected by nonprobability purposive sampling. Clinical data sheet of preterm infants, breastfeeding behaviour assessment scale and growth velocity monitoring sheet were used for data collection. Weighing scale, infantometer and inch tape were used to measure anthropometric measures of preterm infants. <br>Results: Analysis of data revealed significant difference in feeding behavior of preterm babies after pre feed oral stimulation programme. Regarding the growth velocity, study shows a significant difference in the weight of preterm infants between control and experimental group, but there was no significant difference in the length, head circumference and chest circumference of the preterm infants. <br>Conclusion: The current study revealed that, pre feed oral stimulation programme has significant influence on promoting feeding behaviour and subsequent positive weight gain in preterm infants.</p> Saritha Naduvile Veedu Mercy Jacob Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 1 2 29 33 10.52314/fnb.2021.v1i2.16 Postnatal Magnesium Trend in less than 34 week Preterms who received Antenatal Neuroprotective Doses of Magnesium Sulphate https://www.fetusandnewborn.com/journal/index.php/fnb/article/view/17 <p>Antenatal magnesium sulphate is one of the neuro protective strategies used for preterm deliveries. One of the concerns with this is whether it leads to hypermagnesemia in newborns. Postnatal magnesium levels were studied in 70 preterms whose mothers received magnesium sulphate. No baby had hypermagnesemia. The mean cord blood magnesium level was 2.76 mg/dl which came down to 2.37 mg/dl by 24 hours of life. Babies who needed labour room resuscitation had slightly elevated cord blood magnesium.</p> M B Sarath M R Anand Preetha Remesh Divia Nath Vishnu Mohan Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 1 2 34 37 10.52314/fnb.2021.v1i2.17